Backup and recovery cmdlets (SharePoint Server 2010)

Backup-SPConfigurationDatabase Performs a farm-level configuration-only backup.
Backup-SPFarm Creates a backup of an individual database, Web application, or the entire farm.
Restore-SPFarm Restores one or more items from a backup.
Backup-SPSite Performs a backup of a site collection.
Restore-SPSite Restores a site collection.
Get-SPBackupHistory Returns a history of backup and restore operations.